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The Nude in Baroque and Later Art
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Since the Renaissance, the nude has remained an essential focus of Western art. Whether embracing or refashioning classical ideals, artists from the seventeenth century to the present have privileged the nude form and made it an endlessly compelling means of creative expression.
In Baroque art, the continuing fascination with classical antiquity pressed artists to renew their approach to the nude and the antique tradition. Thus Hendrick Goltzius' remarkable view of the Hercules Farnese from behind and below (17.37.59) alters the muscular texture of a revered ancient statue, while Andrea Sacchi's portrait of Marcantonio Pasqualini (1981.317), a highly esteemed singer of his day, inflates the status of the sitter by including two nudes representing the mythic musicians Apollo and Marsyas. Other nudes help to heighten the drama of narrative works, such as Guercino's painting of Samson captured (1984.459.2), in which the decision to represent the hero as the lone nude, muscular but powerless in the midst of armed adversaries, highlights his present weakness as well as his former strength. The female nude took on fresh meaning in the art of Rubens, who with evident delight painted women of generous figure and radiant flesh (37.162). The Baroque taste for allegories based on classical metaphors also favored undraped figures, which were used to personify concepts such as the Graces and Truth.
Primary Thematic Essays (6)
Other Thematic Essays (17)
Index Terms (42)
In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, as esteem for classical culture ran high, so too did the prestige of the nude. The academies of the period directed young artists to develop their skills by drawing the naked form of ancient sculpture as well as live models, and many successful artists continued such exercises long after their student days (1985.112.1; 1972.118.226a,b). Nudes are ubiquitous in the ambitious history paintings of the period as well as sculpture and decorative schemes. Proponents of the Neoclassical style made nudes closely based on ancient examples, like Canova's Perseus (67.110), which repeats the pose and body type of the widely admired Apollo Belvedere. Artists associated with the Romantic movement assumed a freer attitude to the nude and to antique subject matter more generally. Camille Corot, for instance, included mythological tales in some of his landscapes; an early example (1975.1.162) represents the woodland spring where the goddess Diana among bathing nymphs prepares to punish Actaeon for catching sight of her naked. So as not to offend nineteenth-century morals, artists tended to depict naked figures within contexts removed from the everyday, such as mythology or the imagined Orient, and yet the careful constraints imposed on the nude somehow heighten its eroticism, as in Alexandre Cabanel's Birth of Venus (94.24.1).
When academic ideals faced challenges in the later nineteenth century, the delicate status of the nude was quickly exposed and subverted. Édotard Manet shocked the public of his time by painting nude women in contemporary situations in his Le Déjeuner sur l'herbe and Olympia (1863 and 1865; both Musée d'Orsay, Paris), and Gustave Courbet earned bitter criticism for portraying in his Woman with a Parrot (29.100.57) a naked prostitute without vestige of goddess or nymph. In sculpture, artists sought new proportions and narrative coherence for the male nude as well as the female. Jean-Baptiste Carpeaux pointed to the dramatic contrast between powerful physique and desperate situation in his group of nudes representing Ugolino with his sons (67.250), and Auguste Rodin challenged classical canons of idealization in his expressively distorted Adam (11.173.1).
Although the classical tradition lost its cultural supremacy in the twentieth century, the appeal of the nude remains strong in modern and contemporary art. The rejection of academic manners in pursuit of a new form of truth reduced the appeal of Venus but promoted the unadorned nudes of private life. The innocent bathers of Renoir's late career (1975.1.199), Degas' artless-looking scenes of women washing and dressing (29.100.41), and Balthus' straightforward girl looking in the mirror (1975.1.155) are formally unlike the idealized nudes of earlier art, yet in their undisguised humanity they are kin to the nudes of antiquity.
Sorabella, Jean. "The Nude in Baroque and Later Art". In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/nuba/hd_nuba.htm (January 2008)
These related Museum Bulletin or Journal articles may or may not represent the most current scholarship.
Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History
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The Synthesis of European and Mughal Art
October 13, 2000
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The European engravings brought to India in the sixteenth century by the Jesuits to help communicate Christian doctrines to the Mughals are well documented.1 Prints of non-religious subjects and topographical materials, which need not have necessarily found their way into Mughal possession by way of the Jesuit missionaries is a subject that has been dealt with to a far lesser extent. Individual travelers and merchants took engravings of classical nudes and mythical subjects to the East; this would explain the presence in Mughal albums of prints of nude, mythological and classical subjects, and motifs from maps in background landscapes.2
What has also been neglected is a study of how the Mughal artists synthesized aspects of these prints and maps to create a new painting style. Perhaps the best example of the synthesis of Mughal and European art in any one manuscript may be seen in an illustrated Khamsa, or collection of epic poems by the Persian poet , now in the British Library, dating between 1593-1595. While some scholars of Indian and Islamic art have dealt with this famous manuscript, the use of European painting techniques and the exact European origins of the paintings of this Khamsa have so far been largely ignored.3
The purpose of this article is to examine the adoption of the European techniques of sfumato, modeling and stereoscopic perspective in the Khamsa illustrations and then to trace the European sources for the motifs of some the key miniatures. In this regard, it is necessary also to look at the use of motifs taken from European maps for Mughal background landscapes, which is a subject that has not been dealt with in Mughal art history. This article also demonstrates that the use of these European elements in the Khamsa was not the sign of a passive acceptance of ‘superior’ painting techniques but a creative and meaningful response by the Mughal artists in the form of articulating their own ideas. Indeed, to use the language of modern technology, the Khamsa is a fine example of the Mughal artists’ ingenuity in “uploading” these foreign elements into their own aesthetic and semantic structures.
We begin with subject of artistic techniques. “Sfumato” may be defined as the deliberate blurring of a line or contour to make an object seem to disappear in the distance, or to add a soft-focus effect to a face or body in the foreground. In the Khamsa, this technique is used in conjunction with another technique, that of painting distant landscape in pale blue in order to create the appearance of distance through gradual shifts of colour from dark to pale tones towards the horizon. Such a technique has its origins in European book illustration, as a folio depicting the Martyrdom of St. Sebastian (Fig. 1) clearly shows.4 This is by Simon Bening from a book of hours painted around 1520-30 in Bruges. It is unlikely that an original page from a treasured Book of Hours found its way to Mughal India, as these folios were avidly collected by the rich and powerful in Europe. However, there were single folios in wide circulation, which were meant as samples for potential buyers.
In the Khamsa, several pictures feature the same technique used for the background scenes. One of the best examples is in the background of a picture of Mary the Copt, the legendary founder of alchemy (Fig. 2).5 Here, behind a distant city, hills and mountains have been painted with faint blue tones to add an idyllic atmosphere to the scene. Such deliberate blurring of forms is also uncharacteristic of the sharper linearity of forms and the use of flat, gold leaf backgrounds in Persian and earlier Mughal art.
Many of the engravings found in Mughal possession excel in the technique of modeling – using light and dark tones to depict the direction of light in order to conjure up the illusion of three dimensions. This is seen best in the modeling of cloth. European engravings provided clear models of the principle of establishing the direction of light. In an engraving of a man and a woman by Jacob Golzius, which was undoubtedly in Mughal possession, as it was eventually to be copied by a Mughal painter in the Gulshan Album, almost all the surface of this print is a spectacle of the engraver’s skill in rendering the play of light on the folds of silk garments and curtains (Fig. 3). Although there are several examples of Mughal artists rendering the light and shade of folds of cloth in the Khamsa manuscript, the most impressive study appears in Brings Khusrau News of 52a (Fig. 4, detail), here, the curtains of the tent show the Mughal artist’s masterful use of the European technique of modeling and a new interest in using colours to depict light and shade, rather than solely as areas in an overall chromatic structure.
The other major European technique utilized by the Mughal artists was the depiction of perspective. One of the most remarkable illustrations in the Khamsa is The King is Carried Away by a Giant Bird – The Story of the Princess of the Black Pavilion, f.195a (Fig. 5). It is rich in incidental detail and rural vignettes on a minute scale. Most of all, however, this miniature is an opportunity to show off the new technique of perspective, not to mention a new aerial viewpoint. The is here shown soaring above the earth, over farms, towns and figures absorbed in the minutiae of everyday life, all oblivious to the , except for the spectators in the castle who raise their hands in wonder and bewilderment.
The King of Black Carried Away by a Giant Bird – The Story of the Princess of the Black Pavilion is a complex exercise in rendering of the illusion of distance: there are no fewer than seven receding planes and several rustic vignettes. This miniaturisation accentuates the feeling of distance and dizzying height. There is also a play on contrasts of scale: the tiny figure in the talons of the monstrous bird and the diminution of objects in the distance. The use of this form of stereoscopic perspective is a decisive break with the earlier techniques of Persian painting where figures near the horizon differ little in size from those in the foreground and where objects appear stacked, one upon another.
This miniature is remarkable not only for demonstrating the Mughal adoption and mastery of techniques of European art but it also shows the Mughal artists adapting aspects of European maps and paintings as subordinate aspects of an overall composition and to support their visual storytelling techniques.
The image of the figure in the claws of a giant bird may have a precedent in European cabinet or panel painting, which preserved the style of earlier Northern European painting. An example of this is The Fall of Icarus (Staedtel, Frankfurt-am-Main, no.1689), by the Antwerp painter, Tobias Verhaecht (1561-1631).6 When considering the landscape and main subject together, the colouring and composition of this painting compare favourably to the Khamsa illustration, which also synthesizes landscape elements and deep perspective. Also comparable are prints and paintings of the story of Ganymede, seized by Jupiter in the form of a great eagle.7 At least in these works, it is a bird carrying off a figure rather than a man with wings. In a charming reversal, the Europeans were influenced by Indian imagery in a print by Stradanus (Jan van der Straet, 1523-1605) of Magellan's Discovery of the Straits, which features a large bird, this time carrying an elephant in its talons across the sky. The image first appears as a description of the Garuda in the Mahabharata (I, 1353) and (III, 39) and in Europe from Marco Polo's description of Madagascar.8 There is also a related picture from a manuscript of the Katha-Sacrit-Sagara of A Man Hiding in an Elephant Skin Carried Off by a Giant c.1590-1600.9
In Arabic literature, the great bird appears in the Arabian Nights as a rescuer of the stranded travelling merchant in one of the tales; in , it appears as a protector and substitute parent of but also, as an evil bird to be conquered by Iskandar.The is the divine entity encompassing all others in c's Mantiq al-Tayr. Any of these sentiments may have attached to the image of the in The King of Black Carried Away by a Giant Bird – The Story of the Princess of the Black Pavilion in the Emperor Akbar's Khamsa. Further motivation for choosing to illustrate the subject besides the deliberately conspicuous manipulation of European painting techniques to execute the image, may have arisen from knowledge of the great bird as a powerful universal symbol in both the Indian, Chinese, Iranian and European cultural traditions.
Other symbolic associations available to the Mughals may be found in some verses from the Mantiq al-Tayr, where c describes the dropping one of its magic feathers in China:
The was thus also known as the inspirational spirit of painting and the inclusion of its image in Akbar's Khamsa of puts the illustrated manuscript on a par with the picture gallery of China mentioned in the verse above.
Many European maps and topographical views of the sixteenth century may be seen as the sources for figural elements and views of ships and distant cities on hills found in the Khamsa pages, these connexions have so far remained unknown. Whether these were brought to India by merchants or by the Jesuits is not known but the Jesuits had certainly brought over maps to their other missions in Japan. One Japanese copy of a map for a screen is from the Civitates Orbis Terrarum published in Antwerp in 1572 and 1581.11 One of the most significant gifts to Akbar from the first Jesuit mission was an atlas of the world.12 The Jesuit father Monserrate reports that on one occasion, while the Jesuits were before Akbar, the emperor called for an atlas and asked where Portugal was in relation to his own kingdom.13
In the Khamsa, motifs from maps may be seen in the form of the figure playing bagpipes accompanied by a greyhound dog in The King of Black Carried Away by a Giant Bird – The Story of the Princess of the Black Pavilion described above (see detail Fig. 6). There is a strikingly similar figure found in a map of 1584, printed by Gottfried von Kempen in an edition of Ptolemy's Geographiae Libri Octo (Fig. 7).14
Scenes of boats and figures pulling in nets from the sea are found in the Civitates Orbis Terrarum (Fig. 8), mentioned above,15 in the Urbium praecipuarum mundi theatrum quintam (Fig. 9) and in Abraham Ortelius’s atlas, the Theatrum Orbis Terrarum (Antwerp, 1570). These are scenes that may be found also in so many Mughal miniatures of the late sixteenth century and in the Khamsa’s Mourning the Death of His Father in particular (detail Fig. 10).16 One can perhaps understand the consistent use of this motif as recognition of the expansionism of the Portuguese fleet in real life, invading the outer reaches of the Mughal artist’s psyche.
Other pictures reinforce the view that the Mughals used European illustrations and maps as a source of imagery for their book illustrations. A Flemish seascape may be identified in the background to the illustration of and the Gazelle, f.19a (Fig. 11, detail). The seascape with a European boat and a farmer ploughing the land immediately in front of this bears a remarkable resemblance to a page representing a calendar scene of February from a Flemish Book of Hours c.1535 (Fig. 12).17 The archaic boat with shields and oars found in the background of this Mughal miniature (Fig. 11, detail) may also be seen as an incidental detail taken from the Geographiae Libri Octo mentioned above (Fig. 13).18
Another aspect indebted to European prints in the Khamsa is that of a bridge over a river with tiny figures walking over it. This may be seen in the background of and the Gazelle. The motif can be traced back to a print after Maarten van Heemskerk of Heraclitus and Democritus, 1557, 19 which in turn, was revived in the topographical views such as those published by Plantin in the 1570s.
European imagery was also used in the Khamsa for the picture of The Disputing Physicians (or Philosophers) folio 23b (Fig. 14). The picture features a series of wall paintings in the background; one rectangular panel with another beneath it is situated in an architectural niche with curtains at the centre. To the left is an arch under which is painted a scene with a background of its own, as if to appear as a window view on to a landscape. In the spandrel of the arch is an angel, painted to appear as a relief. These features in the composition can be compared to a sixteenth-century European print of the Visitation from the Evangelicae Historiae Imagines (c. 1571, Fig. 15).20 This has the same organization of space: an arch to the left in where there is a subsidiary scene, the Birth of St. John the Baptist, and a central panel (the Journey to Nazareth), in front of which the main 'real' scene takes place, the Visitation. , who painted The Disputing Physicians, must have adapted the basic composition from this original and added to it a rather conventional Persian scene in the foreground.
The central panel in the background of folio 23b may be identified as St. Luke and the Angel or a St. Matthew and the Angel. It is clear that the wall painting is based on a version of a very similar scene by c.1590.21 There is an even earlier copy by , dated 1587-8, now at the Bodleian Library. This is of St. Matthew writing in a book held by an angel. The original European engraving of c.1565, with the kind of boats and far-off townscapes typical of the Khamsa, is by Philip Galle, based on a work by Maarten van Heemskerk the Khamsa is obviously related to this although this connection has never before been made explicit.22 The only difference in the Khamsa painting is that the angel writes on a scroll of paper, while in the other versions, the angel holds open the page of the book for the saint to write on. Another version of this image is a folio from the Plantin Humanae Salutis Monumenta c. 1571,23 which shows an angel encouraging the saint to write. The smaller inset below this in The Disputing Physicians picture represents a female reading from a scroll with an attendant standing nearby.24 This may be an Annunciation: several European engravings by the Wierix family depict the Virgin in bed, receiving an angel with a scroll, bearing good tidings.25
The scene depicted on the left of the Disputing Physicians features several bathers in a tub. The picture is obviously European in origin, as nudity in Islamic art is extremely rare.26 The panel to the left appears as a real opening onto a background landscape under a painted arch. It presents itself as problematic: either this is an obvious illusion, or the nude scene is taking place in the same room as the encounter between the disputing physicians.
In contemporary Europe, nude scenes such as Diana and Actaeon,27 or David Surprising Bathsheba28 were becoming popular in paintings and prints. Susannah and the Elders,29 a biblical story, which contains a bathing scene, was frequently represented in the form of prints and tapestries in the sixteenth century.30 But in these images, the elders are always shown fully clothed.31 The scene in the Khamsa appears not to be based on a bible story, or on Ovid, but is in fact, related to an entirely different pictorial tradition. The image is copied from a print from a fifteenth-century genre depicting women's bathhouses, common in the Northern Renaissance (Figs. 16).The central motif that runs through several of these prints is a tub with scantily clad or nude bathers in it (Fig. 16).32
By the sixteenth century, the tradition of representing bath-houses was carried on by Dürer in such drawings as Im Turspalt ein Voyeur,33 which was copied later in that century by Hans Springinklee. H. S. Beham also executed several prints of women bathing in tubs (Fig. 17)34 comparable to the scene in the Khamsa. The reason for including the bathtub scene in this picture was perhaps to cast an aspersion on the consistent nudity found in European art, in contradiction to the rather more sacred imagery found in the painting next to it.
Although the painting illustrates ’s story of the disputing physicians, the presence of the Christian pictures in the background can only be explained as an elaboration meant to allude to the theological debates held between the Jesuits and the Mughals.35 The , the chronicle of the Emperor’s reign, describes an invitation to scholars and theologians of all religions, heralded by the foundation of the (or debating chamber), opened at Akbar's splendid palace at Fatehpur Sikri:
Many of the debates that took place between Akbar’s Islamic theologians and the Jesuits are recorded in Father Monserrate’s Commentary and tell of the theological debates about the Trinity, the Immaculate conception and the Art of the Covenant, for example. 37
Thus, The Disputing Physicians may be seen to have a dual nature: it illustrates a legendary story and a real life event, so that each appears to reflect the other. The painting illustrates the episode in the text and is this is the outer meaning of the painting (known as the by the Mughals) but also, its inner meaning () refers to the Mughal and Jesuits' theological debates and the artistic contest between the Mughal artists and the European. Akbar asked his artists to copy European works (as one of them has done in the Disputing Physicians miniature) to see if they could do better than the Europeans.38 The ‘inner picture’ is about the inspirational sources of painting: the prime mover of the scene is God who has given the saint a vision in the form of the angel; secondly, the angel prompts the painter to paint, or write;39 the result is a painting which itself has inspired several copies by other artists, one of them , the painter of the Disputing Physicians.
It is also possible to see the picture of a painting within a painting in the Disputing Physicians as a representation of one of the physician’s visionary experiences (revealed by the curtain being drawn to one side), hence the physician swooning to the right. St. Luke (or St. Matthew) has a vision of the angel in the European painting on the wall, which in turn is portrayed as the vision of one of the physicians. In parallel with a common compositional scheme in Counter-Reformation Europe, the Disputing Physicians is a Mughal example of an artistic device that consists of the representation of a visionary experience, by placing the visionary in the lower part of the picture with the vision in the upper part.40
Finally in the verse in the Khamsa text dealing directly with this picture we read:
Seen as an illustration of this verse, the European images, which may also represent Christianity, or the vision of the disputing physician, are the “mirage” referred to in the text. The Disputing Physicians turns the tables on European art using it as part of a complex allegory of the Mughals’ own making.
With the kind of synthesis of European and Mughal Indian painting seen in the Khamsa’s Disputing Physicians; and The Gazelle and The King of the Black is Carried Off by a Giant Bird, it may be said that the Mughals’ use of European art had moved beyond simple copying to the application of sfumato, perspective and the illusion of volume to articulate their own storytelling. European techniques of modeling and creating the illusion of light and shade created a new interest in textures and surface effects. In all of the pictures mentioned here, the artists of Akbar's Khamsa took details from Western works and painted them in different and innovative landscape environments and contexts for subtle evocations of mood and atmosphere. The so-called European elements in the Khamsa are thus selected carefully and are used in a balanced and sophisticated manner. Moreover, in the case of the Disputing Physicians in particular, European art was manipulated to add allegorical meaning to the narrative structure. Thus, the Mughal painting repertoire was expanded to include European techniques and motifs and utilized in complex compositional and semantic structures. The Mughal response to European art was not slavish imitation but creative reinvention.
 The first wave of European prints dating from the 1540s must have arrived with Francis Xavier who was sent to India in 1542, or subsequently with fifty of his Jesuit brothers who joined him in Goa after 1555. Some of these mid-sixteenth century prints were probably acquired by the Mughal embassy to Goa in 1575. The second wave, dating from the latter part of the century must have arrived at the Mughal court with the three Jesuit missions, the first in 1580, the second in 1591, and the third in 1595. The literature dealing with this subject is quite extensive. For a good number of reproductions, and groundbreaking attributions see R. Ettinghausen, ‘New Pictorial Evidence of Catholic Missionary Activity: Mughal India (Early XVIII Century) Perennitas, Münster, 1963, pp. 385-96 and M.C. Beach, ‘The Gulshan Album and its European Sources’, Bulletin Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, #332, 1965, Vol. LXIII, pp. 63-89 and also by the same author, ‘An Early European Source in Mughal Painting’ Oriental Art 22, no. 2 (1976), pp. 180-188; The Grand Mogul: Imperial Painting in India, 1600-1660 (Williamstown Mass., 1978); The Imperial Image, Paintings for the Mughal Court (Washington DC, 1981). Percy Brown’s Indian Painting Under the Mughals (Oxford, 1924) and E. D. Maclaglan’s The Jesuits and the Great Mughal (London, 1932) although old still have useful passages on European and Mughal art, as does P. du Jarric’s Akbar and the Jesuits Tr., C. H. Payne (London, 1926), J.F. Butler’s Christian Art in India (Madras, 1986) and A. K. Das’s, Mughal Painting During Jahangir’s Time (Calcutta, 1978). More up-to-date are E. Koch’s brilliant essays and studies: ‘The Influence of the Jesuit Missions on Symbolic Representation of the Mughal Emperors’ in The Akbar Mission and Miscellaneous Studies, ed. C. W. Troll, Islam in India: Studies and Commentaries, 1, New Delhi, 1982, pp. 14-29 and ‘Jahangir and the Angels: Recently Discovered Wall Paintings Under European Influence in the Fort of Lahore’ in India and the West: Proceedings of a Seminar Dedicated to the Memory of Hermann Goetz, ed., J. Deppert, New Delhi, 1983, pp. 173-95. Also worth consulting J. M. Rogers, Islamic Art and Design 1500-1700 (London, 1983) and Mughal Miniatures (London, 1993); A. Okada, Imperial Mughal Painters, Indian Miniatures from the 16th and 17th Centuries tr. D. Dusinberre (New York, 1992); M. Brand and G. D. Lowry, Akbar's India: Art From the Mughal City of Victory (New York 1985) and D. Jones, ed., A Mirror of Princes, The Mughals and the Medici (Bombay, 1987). The subject was researched by E. Devapriam, The Influence of Western Art on Mughal Painting (unpublished doctoral thesis, Case Western Reserve University, 1972). [Back to text]
 Prints may have arrived at the Mughal court independently of the Jesuits, as they were not the only carriers of printed material to the East. In 1596, at Nova Zembla, between the Barents and Kara seas, a Dutch vessel ran aground on its way to the East via the Northern Passage. The ship was probably not the first or last merchant ship to carry prints as merchandise for oriental markets. For examples of what were found, see J. Braat, J. P. Filedt Kok, J. H. Hofenk de Graaf, and P. Poldervaart, 'Restauratie Conservatie en Onderzoek van de op Nova Zembla gevonden zestiendeeuwse prenten', Bulletin Rijksmuseum, vol. 28, 1980, pp. 43-79. [Back to text]
 See F. Martin, The Miniature Paintings and Painters of Persia, India and Turkey, from the 8th to the 18th Century (London, 1912); G. Warner, Descriptive Catalogue of Illuminated Manuscripts in the Library of C.W. Dyson Perrins, DCL, FSA, 2 vols. (Oxford, 1920); P. Brown, Indian Paintings Under the Mughals, A. D. 1550 to AD 1750 (Oxford, 1924); S. C. Welch, 'The Emperor Akbar's Khamsa of , Journal of the Walters Art Gallery, XXIII, 1960, pp. 87-96; T.J. Brown, ' Manuscripts From the Dyson Perrins Collection', The British Museum Quarterly, XXIII/2, 1961, pp. 28-30; G.M. Meredith-Owens, Handlist of Persian Manuscripts 1895-1966 (London, 1968); N. Titley, Miniatures from Persian Manuscripts in the British Library and the British Museum (London, 1977); J.P. Losty, The Art of the Book in India (London, 1982); H. Marshall, ‘An Analysis of Sixteenth and Seventeenth Century Mughal Painting: With Reference to Persian Cultural and Political Influences’ (Unpublished doctoral thesis, University of London, 1981); J. M. Rogers, Islamic Art and Design 1500-1700 (London, 1983); M.C. Beach, Early Mughal Painting (Harvard, 1987); A. Okada, Imperial Mughal Painters, Indian Miniatures from the 16th and 17th Centuries (Paris, 1992); J.M. Rogers, Mughal Miniatures (London, 1993); S. P. Verma, Mughal Painters and their Work: A Bibliographical Survey and Comprehensive Catalogue (Delhi, 1994) and B. Brend, The Emperor Akbar’s Khamsa of (London, 1995). [Back to text]
 Art at Auction, The Year at Sotheby’s 1983-84 (London, 1984), p. 156. [Back to text]
 See Brend, 1995, fig. 38. [Back to text]
 See J. M. Rogers, Islamic Art and Design 1500-1700 (London, 1983) [Back to text]
 For several images comparable to that in the Khamsa, see G. Kempler, Ganymed, Studien zur Typologie, Ikonografie und Ikonologie (Würzerg, 1980). [Back to text]
 See R. Wittkower, 'Miraculous Birds', Journal of the Warburg Institute, vol. I, no. 3, pp. 255-257, and for a reproduction of the Stradanus print. The same motif but in the guise of a Persian or Chinoiserie with an elephant in its beak, or talons, may be seen in BL Add. 18803, f. 15, and in a Jain cosmological design and as a design on a Mughal carpet both at the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, reproduced in Coomaraswamy, Catalogue of Indian Collections at the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston (Boston, 1930), vol. II, pls. LXXIII, LXII and CCXCVIII. [Back to text]
 E. Binney 3rd., Indian Miniature Painting From the Collection of Edward Binney 3rd (Portland, 1973), p. 50. [Back to text]
 J.C. Burgel, The Feather of , The Licit Magic of the Arts in Medieval Islam (New York and London, 1988), p. 6. [Back to text]
 McCall, ‘Early Jesuit Art in the Far East ’, Artibus Asiae, 1947, vol. X/3, p. 223. [Back to text]
 Hoyland and Banerjee, op. cit., p. 28. J. S. Hoyland and S. N. Bannerjee, Trs., The Commentary of Father Monserrate, S. J. (Madras, 1922). [Back to text]
 Ibid ., p. 126. [Back to text]
 Robert Messina, Biblioteca Geografica (Rieti, 1991), p. 107. [Back to text]
 Ibid., 269. [Back to text]
 In the background of Presented With a Fish in the Keir Collection, three men pull in a boat, a detail which also appears in the Khamsa of , f. 132a. [Back to text]
 Munich Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, MS. lat.23638, fol. 3v. Publ. W. S. Gibson, Bruegel, (London, 1977), fig. 103. [Back to text]
 Publ. R. Messina, op.cit., (Rieti, 1991), p.108. [Back to text]
 Gibson, 1997, fig. 46, p. 78. [Back to text]
 By Hieronymus Wierix in M. Mauquoy-Hendrickx, Les Estampes de Wierix Conservees au Cabinets des Estampes de la Bibliothèque Royale Albert Ier, vol. I (Bruxelles, no date), vol. III, no. 1992, pl. 307. [Back to text]
 P. Pal, ed., Master Artists of the Mughal Court (Marg, Bombay, 1991)., fig. 10. [Back to text]
 Published in M. C. Beach, Mughal and Rajput Painting (Cambridge, 1992)., fig. 36. [Back to text]
 F. de Nave and D. Imhof, Christoffel Plantijn en de Iberische Wereld (Antwerp, 1992), cat. 10. [Back to text]
 The only comparable material in Mughal art is a picture of the Virgin Mary and an angel holding up to her an open book, see S. N. Gupta, Catalogue of Paintings in the Central Museum, Lahore (Lahore, 1922), pl. VI. [Back to text]
 Mauquoy-Hendrickx, op. cit., Vol. III, no. 2231, pl. 397. [Back to text]
 There appears to be only one other related scene in Mughal art, in a loose leaf at the Victoria and Albert Museum (D399-1885) where, in the background, two nude children play over a barrel. [Back to text]
 Cf.an engraving by Georg Pencz in D. Landau, Engl. Tr. A. Paul, Georg Pencz (Milan, 1978), pl. B. 79b. [Back to text]
 Ibid., pl. B. 21. [Back to text]
 Ibid., 28B and a print by J. Brae the Younger in Max Geisberg and W. L. Strauss ed., The German Single Leaf Woodcut 1500-1550 (New York, 1978), pl. G. 396. [Back to text]
 See prints by Anton Wierix in Mauquoy-Hendrickx, op. cit., vol. I, pls. 70-71, and mention of tapestries featuring the same subject in W. S. Thomson, The History of Tapestry (London, 1973), p. 254 and 380. [Back to text]
 See an art historical treatment of the topos by H. Rosenhagen, Susanna im Bade (Dresden, 1925). [Back to text]
 See H. P. Duerr, Nachtheit und Scham, Der Mythos vom Zivilisationsprozess (Frankfurt am Main, 1988), particularly figure 25, a scene of a Burgundian bath-house with two nudes who very much resemble those in the Khamsa, f. 23b, and fig. 40, Jungbrunnen. Figs 26, 31, and 43 are also comparable. [Back to text]
 Ibid., pl. 19. [Back to text]
 See G. Pauli, Hans Sebald Beham, Ein Kritisches Verzeichniss (Strasbourg, 1901), 216, ii and 210, ii, the latter print displays a woman's anatomy as frankly as the representation in the Khamsa. [Back to text]
 The Jesuits were actually painted into a story of a now dispersed 1592-94, now in the Freer Gallery of Art, Washington. Jesuits also appear in an illustration by c. 1605, now in the Chester Beatty Library, Dublin. [Back to text]
 H. Beveridge, Tr., Akbar-name. 2 vols. (Calcutta, 1907, 1910 and 1912), 1948, p. 365. [Back to text]
 J. S. Hoyland and S. N. Bannerjee, Trs., The Commentary of Father Monserrate, S. J.(Madras, 1922). [Back to text]
 P. Du Jarric, Akbar and the Jesuits, Tr., C. H. Payne (London, 1926), p. 168. [Back to text]
 Seen as a hierarchy, the divine faculty moves the intellect, whose subordinate is the imagination, below this is sense perception and then material objects. This is similar to Plato's line divided in the Republic between ideas, mathematical concepts, objects and shadows. Such schemata, synthesized with the hierarchical scheme inherited from Plotinus are seen in various Islamic philosophers’ works from the al-Safa, , Ibn Sina, (whose work was illustrated by Akbar's artists) to Ibn Rushd and Ibn al-. [Back to text]
 See V. Stoichita, Visionary Experience in the Golden Age of Spanish Art (London, 1995), p. 27. [Back to text]
Christian Travel and Travel Guides
European Art and Architecture
A Christian Perspective on Nudity in European Art:
When Professor Hans Rookmaaker wrote his Modern Art and the Death of a Culture (1967) he demonstrated the truth of his argument through illustrations of famous European paintings of nude figures. This was too much for the editors at InterVarsity Press who insisted that he change his illustrations to meet the sensibilities of its Christian readership. Rookmaaker complied, but he always regretted that the editors lacked the courage to publish his book in its original form because he argued the way in which nudes are portrayed in painting tells us far more about the basic beliefs of the painter and his or her society than anything else.
Of course the editors at British InterVarsity who made the decision to change Rookmaaker's book knew their market and were reflecting the real concerns of potential readers. The curators of secular art galleries on the other hand have no such scruples. Consequently, anyone who visits a major art display in Europe or North America is bound to see a large number of paintings containing nude figures which frankly embarrass many Christians, particularly evangelical North American Evangelical Christians. Therefore, anyone who encourages Christians to visit art galleries and take seriously the cultural heritage of Europe needs to warn people that when the visit an art gallery they are bound to see nude paintings and explain why such paintings are not what they seem to modern viewers.
Probably the best example to help Christians understand the importance of paintings portraying nudes is the oft repeated work The Rape of Lucricia. To the modern viewer this is simply a picture of a nude, or seminude, woman holding a knife to her breast that really makes very little sense. Therefore, it is important to ask why so many Christian painters, like Martin Luther's friend Lucas Cranach the Elder, painted this classic picture. The answer lies in both pre-modern attitudes to nudity and the story of the painting itself which is actually a morality play.
This is why the Rape of Lucricia is such an important painting in terms of helping us understand the attitude to people like Cranach and Luther to nudity. The story of Lucricia is a simple one. She was a virtuous Roman women who was savagely raped by the Roman King who considered it his right to take any woman he wanted. After her rape Lucricia shocked the leading families of Rome by appearing naked in the center of the city crying out that she had been wronged and demanding justice. After this she committed suicide in full view of everyone.
Her heroic act in preferring death to dishonour led to the overthrow of the Roman monarchy and the establishment of a Republic. Therefore, when men like Cranach painted this epic tale they were making a bold political and social statement which was understood by every educated person. Lucricia like Luther chose truth and honour over pretense and servitude. Like Luther she was prepared to die for her beliefs and what she believed God required of her. Thus the painting reminded the viewer that there are some things in life worth more than life itself. Hence the popularity of the theme with painters, particularly Protestants who were facing the possibility of martyrdom for their faith.
All the other great classical themes containing nudes are based on similar premises. Behind them are stories about virtue, or deceit, that are intended to remind the viewer that life is more than eating and drinking and can only be lived to the full if it is based on ethical values and the deep convictions that ultimately find fulfillment in Christ. This is why so many great Christian artists of the past painted the nudes that appear in today's art galleries.
Anyone who has visited a historic site like Colonial Williamsburg, Virginia, USA, knows that before the mid-19th century it was usual for travelers of both sexes to sleep in one common bed in Inns and other resting places. They also used common toilets where people, of both sexes, often sat on benches besides one another. Today such a lack of privacy is unthinkable in the West and most modern countries. But, as anyone who has lived in an African or Asian village knows such things are not uncommon even today once one leaves the confines of modern civilization. What this means is that our ancestors and many people in other parts of the world even today lived with nudity as a normal part of life.
Here it is important to be very careful and point out that just because people may sleep in the same bed or see others in various stages of undress does not mean, as most modern people think, that all modesty is lacking. What it means is that chastity and virtue are often understood differently in pre-modern and rural cultures. Thus while it is normal for children to run around naked in many parts of Africa and Asia, and for women to breast-feed their children in public, it does not follow that the people who accept such things as normal are sexually loose or immoral. Indeed, they may often have higher ethical standards than many moderns who see their behaviour as immodest.
The plain fact is that before the nineteenth century and in many parts of the world today ordinary life was or is crowded and by European and North American standards crude but not necessarily immoral. Therefore, when painters painted their contemporaries they reproduced what they saw and that often involved pictures of people bathing, breast-feeding children, and similar scenes.
Yet today Christians who visit European art galleries are often embarrassed when they visit art galleries like the National Gallery, in London, or the Alte Pinakothek in München (Munich), where they seen beautiful paintings of nativity scenes where Mary is breast-feeding the baby Jesus. To many people such scenes are almost blasphemous and certainly obscene. It comes as a real shock when some Christians discover that many of the pictures they are inclined to dismiss as "pornographic" were painted by such outstanding Christian artists as the Cranach's, Albert Dürer, and Rembrandt. Therefore, it is necessary to think about such art in a theological context.
The truth is many Christians are far more comfortable looking at highly stylised Eastern Orthodox Icons which are the product of an otherworldly spirituality than the art of the Reformation. The following examples of Byzantine art illustrate this fact:
Although some people may feel that Byzantine paintings are too otherworldly, none will be embarrassed by their lack of realism in the way they portray a mother and child. Now take a look at the following pictures by Reformation artists:
In the above paintings Mary is seen holding the baby Jesus as any earthly mother would hold a child. The theological impulse behind such paintings is to bring Christianity alive in the lives of the onlooker by identifying spiritual events with daily life. Even the clothing worn reflects the times not because the artists knew no better, some did, but because they sought to identify the saving events of the Gospel with their own experiences. Further, and perhaps even more important is the fact that Reformation artists sought to express the full truth of the Gospel that Jesus was both fully man and fully God. No one can doubt the sacred nature of Byzantine art. Nor, are they left in any doubt that the child they see is divine. Where doubts arise is whether or not the events portrayed belong to this world and whether the child actually human.
By portraying the baby Jesus as a human baby with a human mother Reformation artists sought to overcome the tendency towards making Jesus a god who is not truly human. Therefore, it followed naturally that they also showed his mother feeding him as baby. Consequently, they kept expressions of his divinity either to other elements in their pictures or to other paintings showing his resurrection. Thus the theological point behind the depiction of breast feeding is a strong assertion of the orthodox theological teaching that Jesus was "very God" and "very man."
Classical Paintings, Classical Oil PaintingToperfect classical paintings gallery supplies techniques, painters names and list, on canvas famous classical paintings of Jesus for sale, these art is offered by classical artists in workshop from China who sell reproductions of classical art painting and handmade classical oil paintings on canvas and drawings in high quality.Add URL | Original Art | Sign in | Shop by Paintings Style | Shop by Artists | Chat with Customer ServiceHome | Catalogue | Portrait | Custom Art | Gift | Contact | Profile | FAQ| Top Sold | My Orders | Register | TestimonialClassical drawings for sale by Toperfect who is classical oil paintings workshop of classical paintings of Jesus, our classical paintings gallery that supplies classical art paintings, painters list and techniques online.Toperfect, the terminal to your hard journey of searching for classical oil painting, names of artists list!
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Classical paintings what we talked about here is the general designation of fine art from Renaissance to impressionism, so classical oil paintings cover multi schools and movements such as Renaissance, Baroque, Rococo, classicism, academism, romanticism, realism, factualism. Subjects of classical art paintings include classical nude, classical landscape paintings, hunting subjects, war ship, still life, etc. And we offer 350 painters names and list, most of them are classical painters.
Classical drawings are important expressional modality on oilpaintingfactory.com idealized the world as it was and as the classical artists felt it. Classical oil painting left out the extraneous detail to go for the truth of the matter and emphasize the noble. The Last Supper portrays Jesus standing out, not because he is at the center of the classical paintings of Jesus, but because he represents calm in a chaotic time. Raphael's School of Athens borrowed from da Vinci's The Last Supper in its arrangement of characters. However, Raphael who is in classical painters list chose to show the classical thinkers of Greece and Rome vice da Vinci's Christ and the Twelve. The classical painter displayed them modestly, each in a pose that epitomized the individual.
Michelangelo would be arguably the most powerful in the classical painters names. His classical painting on Sistine Chapel ceiling was an extraordinary accomplishment, portraying the anatomically correct human body in any position. His classical oil painting Holy Family featured more motion in a smaller space, with figures looking almost sculpted, like Greek gods. This style of classical art paintings was the first to stress a balance and harmony in art and nature. Furthermore, it was subsidized by the Pope primarily for the classical paintings of Jesus of his chapel and by the rich Italian families that wanted to have that which the Church had. Da Vinci, even with his unexplainable dissonance, mastered the harmonious in his classical drawings as he used space to even out masterpiece of classical oil paintings titled The Holy Family with St. Anne and The Madonna of the Rocks.
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Escha van den Bogerd - Nude and Figurative paintings
Escha van den Bogerd ( 1972)
Escha van den Bogerd was born in The Hague, Holland,And started painting at the age of 3.In the Hague,she attended the Rudolf Steiner school, a school with many art subjects including painting, drawing and art history.
After leaving school Escha studied art in Florence, Italy, Salzburg, Austria and her home country Holland. Inspiration comes from many different things, the old masters Caravaggio, Rembrandt, Da Vinci ,Veronese,Tintoretto,Canaletto,Rubens etc. who created a beautiful sense of light. Movies set in olden times and places like Venice, Florence, and the Middle East. But inspiration can also come from people, experiences good or bad and simply just life itself can create new emotions on the canvas
Escha uses a method of painting in which abstraction and figurative images combine and reinforce each other's effect. Her work has delicate compositions and Colour palette of many of the Italian romance painters. The use of wash like technique adds drama and warmth, vibrancy and great emotional power with femininity and sensitivity A refreshing combination of traditional figurative painting in a contemporary style influenced by the many countries she has visited.
She is an artist of exceptional intensity whose dynamic and poetic abstraction faces and figurative display profound sensitivity and a great emotional power. Vital in attack and detail and brilliant in colour her energetically composed acrylic paintings radiate an aura of spirituality, which suggests the Middle East and Italian influences, although their formal characteristics are wholly in the contemporary European tradition.
Her first painting she sold in the town of Kitzbuehel in Austria where she lived and worked for 3 winters as a ski instructor from 1991 until 1994. Many years of travelling followed to places such as The Middle East, most of Asia, Europe, Australia, New Zealand and US. She started exhibiting her paintings in galleries all over the world followed including New Zealand, Japan, Europe and US.
Her Paintings have been sold to private collections in some of the following countries, Switzerland,Austria,Peru,Luxembourg, Holland, italy,UK, USA, United Arab Emirates, Hong Kong, Germany, Ireland,belgium,france, and New Zealand.
. Painting is my passion my life, and is about sharing thoughts and emotions with others. My works of art have become extremely personal; they are an emotional response to my surroundings and experiences. These are reflections of joy, hope, peace and sadness.
New prints are published again by international graphics germany for more visit their website :
Depictions of nudity
|This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in the Spanish Wikipedia. (January 2012)
Don't speak Spanish? Click here to read a machine-translated version of the Spanish article.
Depictions of nudity refers to nudity in all the artistic disciplines including vernacular and historical depictions. Nudity in art has generally reflected — with some exceptions — social standards of aesthetics and modesty/morality of their time in painting, sculpture and more recently in photography.
At all times in human history, the human body has been one of the principal subjects for artists. It has been represented on prehistoric paintings and statutes and in all eras since. The male nude was more common in antiquity, especially in ancient Greece, but today the tendency is for the female nude body to be more highly regarded and represented.
Since the first days of photography, the nude was a source of inspiration for those that adopted the new medium. Most of the early images have been closely guarded or surreptitiously circulated, on account of social norms of the time. At that time, prostitutes tended to model for these photographs. Today, the images of the human body are often, especially in advertising for the wide variety of products and services, those of the female body.
Many cultures accept nudity in art even when they shun actual nudity. For example, even an art gallery which exhibits nude paintings will typically not accept nudity of a visitor.
As social attitudes about artistic nudity have changed, this has sometimes led to conflict over art that no longer conforms to prevailing standards of what is acceptable. For example, some members of the Roman Catholic Church once organized the so-called "fig-leaf campaign" to cover nudity in art, starting from the works of Renaissance artist Michelangelo, but the Church has since removed such fig leaves and restored the works. In contrast, it was conventional in ancient Greek art, from the time of the Archaic period onwards, to represent deities and divinized humans (or "heroes") in a state of heroic nudity in paintings and sculpture, and it remained so throughout the classical and Roman periods.
Even though tastes changed significantly, semi-nude themes kept their attraction, even leading to copying of scenes from many centuries before.
The nude (see Art nude) has become an enduring genre and theme of representational art, especially painting, sculpture and photography. It depicts people without clothes, usually with stylistic and staging conventions that distinguish the artistic elements (such as innocence, or similar theatrical/artistic elements) of being nude with the more provocative state of being naked. A nude figure is one, such as a goddess or a man in ancient Greece, for whom the lack of clothing is its usual condition, so that there is no sexual suggestiveness presumed. A naked figure is one, such as a contemporary prostitute or a businessman, who usually wears clothing, such that their lack of it in this scene implies sexual activity or suggestiveness (See also: nudity and sexuality). The latter were rare in European art from the Medieval period until the latter half of the 1800s; in the interim, a work featuring an unclothed woman would routinely identify her as "Venus" or another Greco-Roman goddess, to justify her nudity. There can be debate with regard to whether a figure in art is either nude or naked for example in some works of Francis Bacon.
Nudity in art, also publicly displayed, is rather common and more accepted than public nudity of real people. For example, a statue or painting representing a nude person may be displayed in public places where actual nudity is not allowed. However, there is also much art depicting a nude person with a piece of cloth or other object seemingly by chance covering the genitals. Some feel the selected focus of "Nude studies" lends itself to an impersonal, objectifying depiction of the human body; others say it can be as selectively depicted as a landscape.
In satire and media
A 1960s comedy sketch featuring English comedians Peter Cook and Dudley Moore admiring Cézanne's Les Grandes Baigneuses in the National Gallery humorously suggested that there must be hundreds of paintings that are not publicly displayed because the pieces of cloth did not fall in just the right places while the artist was painting them.
In modern media, images of partial and full nudity are used in advertising to draw additional attention. In the case of attractive models this attention is due to the visual pleasure the images provide; in other cases it is due to the relative rarity of images of nudity. The use of nudity in advertising tends to be carefully controlled to avoid the impression that the company whose product is being advertised is indecent or unrefined. There are also (self-imposed) limits on what advertising media such as magazines allow. The success of sexually provocative advertising is claimed in the truism "sex sells". However, responses to nudity in American advertisements have been more mixed; nudity in the advertisements of Calvin Klein, Benetton, and Abercrombie & Fitch, to name three companies, have provoked much negative as well as positive response. (See also: Sex in advertising).
Of images of nudity (not necessarily pornographic), the most extreme form is full frontal nudity, referring to the fact that the actor or model is presented from the front and with the genitals exposed. Frequently images of nude people do not go that far and photos are deliberately composed, and films edited, such that in particular no genitalia are seen, as if the camera failed to see them by chance. This is sometimes called "implied nudity" as opposed to "explicit nudity."
|Goya's La maja desnuda and La maja vestida. Goya painted La maja vestida after outrage in Spanish society over the previous Desnuda. Without a pretense to allegorical or mythological meaning, the painting was "the first totally profane life-size female nude in Western art". He refused to paint clothes on her, and instead created a new painting.|
Film and television
The portrayal of nudity in motion pictures and television has long been controversial. Full nudity has gained much wider acceptance in European cinema and television where, in contrast to their US counterparts, the audience perceive nudity and sexuality in general as less objectionable than the depiction of violence. Nudity in a sexual but non-pornographic context, however, has in many European countries remained on the fringe of what is socially acceptable for public shows, although this situation was liberalized during the later 20th century; in the 1970s Australian soap operas Number 96 and The Box regularly included nudity, and in the Netherlands nudity has been featured on talk shows such as Jensen! and Giel, starring Giel Beelen.
Broadcast television and most "basic cable" outlets in the United States have been more reluctant to display nudity in most cases, the exception being PBS. A few series in the 1990s, including NYPD Blue, have occasionally used partial nudity, both male and female. When broadcast on television, theatrically released films featuring nudity are usually presented with the nude scenes edited out, or the nudity is obscured in some fashion (for example digital imagery may be used to clothe nude actors). Several premium cable services such as HBO, Showtime, and more recently FX, have gained popularity for, among other things, presenting unedited films. In addition, they have produced series that do not shy away from nude scenes, including Oz, Sex and the City, The Sopranos, True Blood, and Queer as Folk (the British original was pioneering even in the more tolerant U.K.). Big Brother (TV series), which has shot in multiple countries, sometimes has nudity in the show, however, the scenes with nudity do not always air on TV.
This tentatively called "ethnographic" nudity has appeared both in serious research works on ethnography and anthropology, as well as in commercial documentaries and in the National Geographic magazine in the United States. In some cases, media outlets may show nudity which occurs in a "natural" or spontaneous setting in news programs or documentaries, while blurring out or censoring the nudity in a dramatic work.
The ethnographic focus provided an exceptional framework for painters and photographers to depict peoples whose nudity was, or still is, acceptable within the mores, or within certain specific settings, of their traditional culture.
Detractors of ethnographic nudity often dismiss it as mere colonial gaze preserved as "ethnographic" imagery. However, the works of some ethnographic painters and photographers, like Irving Penn, Casimir Zagourski, Hugo Bernatzik and Leni Riefenstahl, have received worldwide acclaim for preserving what is perceived as a documentation of the dying mores of "paradises" subjecty to the onslaught of average modernity.
American Art media continues to report on depictions of nudity in the US culture as artists flock to work from live nude models and the internet has increased both interest and awareness. For example, ARTnews: "Nothing Like the Real Thing" and The New York Observer: "As the Flesh Fades, NY Painters Band Together" 
Other depictions in vernacular culture
Nudity is occasionally presented in other media as well (often with attending controversy) such as on album covers featuring music by performers such as Jimi Hendrix, John Lennon and Yoko Ono, Nirvana, Blind Faith, Scorpions and Jane's Addiction. Several rock musicians have performed nude on stage, including members of Jane's Addiction, Rage Against the Machine, Green Day, Black Sabbath, Stone Temple Pilots, The Jesus Lizard, Blind Melon, Red Hot Chili Peppers, blink-182, Queens of the Stone Age, Of Montreal, and The Bravery.
Television soap operas have rarely shown any risqué nudity, the exception being the Procter & Gamble soap operas As the World Turns and Guiding Light which in 2005 went as far as featuring rear male nudity during lovemaking scenes. After the Janet Jackson Super Bowl XXXVIII halftime show controversy in February 2004, U.S. Federal Communications Commission commissioner Michael J. Copps stated that it was time for a crackdown on daytime television and indicated that he was reviewing whether soap operas were violating the agency's indecency prohibitions. Following this news, Guiding Light edited out nudity from an episode that had already been taped. A week later, the show's executive producer John Conboy was fired and replaced by Ellen Wheeler. All nine American network soaps began to impose an unwritten rule of avoiding any sort of risqué adult scenes.
An example of an advertisement featuring male full frontal nudity is one for M7 fragrance. Many magazines refused to place the ad, so there was also a version with a more modest photograph of the same model.
On the Internet, especially on websites featuring images of well known people, the terms nude and nudity have often been used (some would say misused) to signify indecent exposure; for example, a photo of an otherwise fully clothed woman with a nipple exposed. See also: Nude celebrities on the Internet.
Children as subjects
During the Italian Renaissance, nude young boys were featured in many paintings, especially those with a Christian theme. Raphael, for example, made paintings of nude putti, sometimes incorrectly identified as cherubim. Other famous examples are Amor Vincit Omnia by Caravaggio and various portraits of Jesus as a baby. Centuries later, many painters created images of nude children that carried no religious significance. For instance, Henry Scott Tuke painted nude adolescent boys doing everyday activities; his images were not overtly erotic, nor did they usually show their genitals. Otto Lohmüller became controversial for his nude paintings of young males, which often depicted genitals. Balthus and William-Adolphe Bouguereau included nude girls in many of their paintings.
Some sculptures depict nude child figures. A particularly famous one is Manneken Pis in Brussels showing a nude young boy urinating into the fountain below. Jeune nymphe descendant dans l'eau (1824) by Georges Jacquot shows a seated nude prepubescent girl.
Professional photographers such as Jock Sturges, Sally Mann, David Hamilton, Jacques Bourboulon, Garo Aida, and Bill Henson have made photographs of nude children and adolescents for publication in books and magazines and for public exhibition in art galleries. According to one school of thought, photographs such as these are acceptable and should be (or remain) legal since they represent the unclothed form of the children in an artistic manner, the children were not sexually abused, and the photographers obtained written permission from the parents or guardians. Opponents suggest that such works should be (or remain) banned and represent a form of child pornography, involving subjects who may have experienced psychological harm during or after their creation. Sturges and Hamilton were both investigated following public condemnation of their work by Christian activists including Randall Terry. Several attempts to prosecute Sturges or bookseller Barnes and Noble have been dropped or thrown out of court and Sturges's work appears in many museums, including New York's Metropolitan Museum of Art
The provocative photo of a nude prepubescent girl on the original cover of the Virgin Killer album by the Scorpions also brought controversy. By contrast, most would consider the naked male baby shown on the cover of the Nevermind album by Nirvana to have no sexual connotation.
There have been incidents in which snapshots taken by parents of their infant or toddler children bathing or otherwise naked were destroyed or turned over to law enforcement as child pornography. Such incidents may be examples of false allegation of child sexual abuse and the overzealous prosecution of such cases has been described in terms of a moral panic surrounding child sexual abuse and child pornography.
- Academy figure
- Guerrilla Girls, a feminist group challenging predominance of female nudity in the arts.
- Leda and the Swan
- Pubic hair in art
- ^ Licht, Fred (1979). Goya, the origins of the modern temper in art. New York: Universe Books. pp. 83. ISBN 0876632940.
- ^ "Casimir Zagourski ''"L'Afrique Qui Disparait" (Disappearing Africa)''". Library.yale.edu. Retrieved 2011-12-10.
- ^ "C. Spieser & P. Sprumont, ''La construction de l’image du corps de l’élite égyptienne à l’époque amarnienne (The formulation of body image for the Egyptian elite in the Amarna period)''". Bmsap.revues.org. 2004-12-01. Retrieved 2011-12-10.
- ^ "Artist - Hugo Bernatzik". Michael Hoppen Gallery. Retrieved 2011-12-10.
- ^ "Nothing Like the Real Thing". ARTnews. Retrieved 2011-12-10.
- ^ Buchek, Nathan. "As the Flesh Fad Fades, ‘Nude’ Painters Band Together | The New York Observer". Observer.com. Retrieved 2011-12-10.
- ^ Doherty, Brian (May 1998). "Photo flap". Reason. Retrieved February 12, 2012.
- ^ "Obscenity Case Is Settled". The New York Times. May 19, 1998.
- ^ "Panel Rejects Pornography Case". The New York Times. Sept 15, 1991.
- ^ Kincaid, James R.. "Is this child pornography?". Retrieved 2012-04-25.
- ^ Peron, Jim (May 5, 2003). Zola, Emile. ed. "The Claptrap over Child Pornography". The Laissez Faire Electronic Times (Digital Monetary Trust) 2 (18). Retrieved 2011-08-27.
- Quotations related to Nudity at Wikiquote